Musical notes - Knowing their names : The basic building block. Practice this away from your instrument. The goal is to spell it without thinking.. like the multiplication table!
The 5 Pentatonic Shapes : There's so much more to it than the A minor pentatonic! This is the base of my system - and this chart is just the tip of the iceberg. I give each shape two names, looking at them from a major or minor perspective. For instance I call the same shape "5" (if in major) or "b7" (if in minor). The names I use indicate the interval to the root and knowing this well works two-fold. Your music theory will benefit from it also. 
Circle of fifths - Circle of fourths : Another building block you should know very well and, in the case of the Circle of Fourths, know it by heart: C F Bb Eb Ab Db Gb B E A D G (C again)
The 5 Dominant Pentatonic Shapes : By changing one note on the major pentatonic (the 6th with the b7) you get a new set of five shapes. And like with the first set of shapes you can use these over different roots to get more complex results; for instance, use Eb3D shape over G for a great Galt sound.